Georgia after the end of the USSR

Alexander Werth Russia at War: 1941-1945 (Pan Books, 1965 [1964]) has a chapter on the German fiasco that was the invasion of Georgia in 1942 and the retreat in 1943. The title of Chapter 7 is “Caucasus Round Trip” and begins:

“Kaukasus – hin und zurück – Caucasus round trip: that’s what German soldiers used to say with a touch of irony and some bitterness when it was all over.” (p. 513)

Georgia needs a special mention, as it is in the process of joining NATO, but bordering on Russia this is a sensitive issue that remains unresolved. It also has association status with the EU, just as Ukraine does. The US retains considerable influence through the NATO negotiations.

Georgia is a classic example of the close co-operation between the USA and the EU. It is a model that has been used in Ukraine as well. It is also  highly relevant to our understanding of the overall strategic situation. Georgia was part of Russia until the collapse of the USSR in 1991. It almost immediately became a subject of NATO and EU interest. “Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Eduard Shevardnadze  President of Georgia (or in equivalent posts) from 1992 to 2003. He was forced to retire in 2003 as a consequence of the bloodless Rose Revolution.” (

The CIA love to name every false flag operation by a colour. See the growing influence of foreign, especially US, influence in Georgia. A similar process was taking place in the breakup of Yugoslavia, especially Serbia with its traditional strong ties to Russia. This, too happened right at the start of the breakup of the USSR. It is common in Western parlance to talk about the new Cold War resulting from the Ukraine crisis.

This is very misleading. There was no break between the fall of the USSR and the continuation of the Cold War that has lasted since 1945. The US moved quickly to establish a hegemonic position in both. As a result, Russia found itself with Georgia applying for both NATO and EU membership, with Russia as its closest neighbour and longest border to its north. Georgia‘s strategic situation lies in its access to oil and gas. So since the collapse of the Soviet Union the USA and the EU between them effectively control internal politics in Georgia. Georgia named the new airport motorway George W. Bush Highway. George W. Bush became the first sitting US president to visit the country.[90] The street leading to Tbilisi International Airport has since been dubbed George W. Bush Avenue.[91] On October 2, 2006, Georgia and the European Union signed a joint statement on the agreed text of the Georgia-European Union Action Plan within the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The Action Plan was formally approved at the EU-Georgia Cooperation Council session on November 14, 2006, in Brussels.[92]” (

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